Aboard
Referring to cargo being put, or laden, onto a means of conveyance.

Accessorial Charges
Accessorial charges are for services that are in addition to typical transportation services such as: inside delivery, a residential delivery, liftgate delivery, and other similar services.

Aircraft Charter
Aircraft charter is the business of renting (a charter) an entire aircraft, partial aircraft space for the purpose of transporting oversize, urgent or time-sensitive cargo. Sometimes referred to ad hoc air transportation. Air charter companies offer a large variety of aircraft for different cargo air transportation needs.

Automated Broker Interface (ABI)
U.S. Customs’ “Automated Broker Interface,” by which brokers file importers’ entries electronically.

Automated Clearing House (ACH)
The commercial trade processing system being developed by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to facilitate legitimate trade and strengthen border security. (Implemented in multiple release phases with full completion schedule for 2015).

Automated Commercial Environment (ACE)
The Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) is a U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) system designed to facilitate legitimate trade while enhancing border security.  ACE will improve collection, sharing, and processing of information submitted to CBP and government agencies.

Automated Commercial System (ACS)
The Automated Commercial System is used by U.S. Customs and Border Protection
(CBP) to track, control, and process all goods imported into the United States.   A key component of ACS is the Automated Broker Interface (ABI) allows qualified participants to electronically file required import data with Customs.

Automated Export System (AES)
AES capabilities allow the electronic filing of export information and ocean manifest information directly to U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

Air Freight Forwarder
An air freight forwarder provides pickup and delivery service under its own tariff, consolidates shipments into larger units, prepares shipping documentation and tenders shipments to the airlines. Air freight forwarders do not generally operate their own aircraft and may therefore be called “indirect air carriers.” Because the air freight forwarder tenders the shipment, the airlines consider the forwarder to be the shipper.

Air Bill or Air Waybill
An air waybill is a shipping document airlines use. Similar to a bill of lading, the air waybill is a contract between the shipper and airline that states the terms and conditions of transportation. The air waybill also contains shipping instructions, product descriptions, and transportation charges. See also waybill.

Alliance
Group of airlines or ocean carriers who coordinate and cross list schedules, and sell capacity on each other’s flights / voyages.

Automated Manifest System (AMS)
Automated Manifest System (AMS) is designed by U.S. Customs to facilitate cargo arrival information and release information between the Steam Ship Lines, Airlines and Rail Carriers for shipments destined to or transiting the United States. AMS information works in conjunction with the ABI system to help customs to identify low risk shipments thus allowing for faster, electronic customs clearance.

AMS information must be transmitted to US customs before the cargo leaves the origin country. Failure to file AMS information will result in monetary penalty. Air AMS information is transmitted directly by the airlines. Sea AMS can be transmitted by carriers or NVOCC’s with the appropriate bonds. PWS is a direct filer with AMS and can ensure timely error free transmission of AMS entries. This is another consideration when choosing the best provider for your importing needs. 

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
A agency with a mission to protect and promote U.S. agricultural health, regulate genetically engineered organisms, administer the Animal Welfare Act, and carry out wildlife damage management activities.

Appointments
Appointments are used when the freight must be delivered at a specific “time” and or within a specific time-frame that is smaller than standard business hours. Standard business hours are considered 8am-5pm and or 9am-4pm. Exceptions may be available by contacting your dispatch agent.

Arrival Notice
An arrival notice is the notice that the consignee receives when their freight has arrived at its destination. See also Delivery Receipt

Articles of Extraordinary Value
Carriers are not liable for “documents, coin money, or articles of extraordinary value” unless the items are specifically rated in published classifications or tariffs. Exceptions may be made by special agreement. If an agreement is made, the stipulated value of the articles must be endorsed on the bill of lading. Articles may include precious stones, jewels and currency. Many tariffs include restrictions on goods with values in excess of a specified amount.

Astray Freight
Astray freight is freight that is separate from the waybill, but has markings that indicate freight origin and destination.

Automated Targeting System (ATS)
The Automated Targeting System is a United States Department of Homeland Security computerized system that, for every person who crosses U.S. borders, scrutinizes a large volume of data related to that person, and then automatically assigns a rating for which the expectation is that it helps gauge whether this person may be placed within a risk group of terrorists or other criminals. Similarly ATS analyzes data related to container cargo.

Attempt to Deliver
An attempt to deliver by which the delivery location is unable to accept the load causing us to bring the freight back to our terminal for re-consignment.

Axle Load 
Each freight shipping transport has a weight limit. The axle load refers to the weight limit permitted for each axle over the nation’s highways.

Backhaul 
Transportation term that describes the activity of picking up, transporting, and delivering a new load on a return trip from delivering another load (known as the fronthaul). The return movement of a vehicle from its original destination to its original point of origin, especially when carrying goods back over all or part of the same route. To haul a shipment back over part of a route it has traveled.

Barge
The cargo-carrying vehicle that inland water carriers primarily use. Basic barges have open tops, but there are covered barges for both dry and liquid cargoes.

Border Cargo Selectivity (BCS)
A system that assesses the risk and examination requirements for high volume borders.

Belly Cargo
Air freight carried in the belly of passenger aircraft.

Beneficial Owner
This is a rail term that refers to the actual owner of the lading (cargo) being shipped.

Bill of Lading (BOL or B/L)
A transportation document that is the contract of carriage containing the terms and condition between shipper and carrier.

Bill of Lading Exceptions
The terms and conditions of most bills of lading release transportation providers from liability for loss or damage arising from:
• An act of God,
• A public enemy,
• The authority of law or
• The act or default of the shipper.

In addition, except in the case of negligence, a transportation provider will not be liable for loss, damage, or delay caused by:
• The property being stopped and held in transit at the request of the shipper, owner or party entitled to make such request;
• Lack of capacity of a highway, bridge or ferry;
• A defect or vice in the property; or
• Riots or strikes.

Blocking
Also known as bracing, refers to wood or other supports used to keep shipments in place on trailers or in containers.

Bogie
This is a rail term that refers to a frame with wheels on which a container is mounted for over-the-road transport.

Bond
An import or export cargo shipment that has not cleared customs. Customs duties on the shipment are secured by indemnity bonds.

Bonded Carrier
A transportation provider U.S. Customs allows to carry customs-controlled merchandise between customs points.

Bonded Warehouse
A bonded warehouse is a warehouse that is approved by the Treasury Department. These warehouses are used for storing goods under bond until duties are paid.

Bottleneck
A section of a highway or rail network that experiences operational problems such as congestion. Bottlenecks may result from factors such as reduced roadway width or steep freeway grades that can slow trucks.

Boxcar
An enclosed railcar, typically 40 or more feet long, used for packaged freight and some bulk commodities.

Border Release Advanced Screening and Selectivity (BRASS)
Formerly known as line release; the process of releasing goods (typically rail shipments) across the border. CBP preapproves products and a bar code label is used to effect release.

Break Bulk Cargo
Break bulk cargo and general cargo are goods that must be loaded individually, not in intermodal type containers or in bulk form such as with oil, grain, coal.

Ships that carry this sort of cargo are often called ‘general cargo ships’. The term break bulk derives from the phrase breaking bulk or the extraction of a portion of the cargo of a ship or the beginning of the unloading process from the ship’s holds. These cargo goods may not be in shipping containers.

Break bulk cargo is transported in bags, boxes, crates, drums, or barrels. Unit loads of items are typically secured to a pallet or skid.

Breakbulk Terminal
Consolidation and distribution center. A terminal in a freight system that unloads and consolidates shipments received from its smaller terminals and from other breakbulks. This terminal may have its own city operation.

Break Bulk Point
A break bulk point is the terminal or location that break bulk takes place.

Broker
A broker is an independent contractor paid to arrange motor-carrier transportation. A broker may work on the carrier’s or shipper’s behalf.

A person whose business it is to prepare shipping and customs documents for international shipments. Brokers often have offices at major freight gateways, including border crossings, seaports, and airports.

Bulk Cargo
Cargo that is stowed loose on transportation vehicles, in a tank or hold without specific packaging, and handled by pump, scoop, conveyor, or shovel.
• Examples: grain, coal, petroleum, chemicals.

Cabotage
A water transportation term regarding the shipments between ports of a nation; also refers to coast-wise or inter-coastal navigation or trade. Most nations, includi

Capacity
The physical facilities, personnel and process available to meet the product of service needs of the customers. Capacity generally refers to the maximum output or producing ability of a machine, a person, a process, a factory, a product, or a service.

Car Seal
Metal strip and lead fastener used for locking freight car or truck doors. Seals are numbered for record purposes.

CARAT
Cargo Agents Reservation Air Waybill Issuance and Tracking (CARAT)

Carfloat
A barge equipped with tracks on which up to about 12 railroad cars are moved in harbors or inland waterways.

Cargo Insurance
Provides liability insurance for transportation carrier who carry the cargo of others and is used in the event that the cargo is destroyed, damaged, stolen, or otherwise declared a loss while in the process of being shipped.

Cargo Manifest
A document (manifest) that lists all cargo carried on a specific vessel voyage.

Cargo Net Services (CNS)
CargoNet provides a multi-layered solution to the cargo theft problem. CargoNet helps prevent cargo theft and increases recovery rates by facilitating secure information sharing among theft victims, their business partners, and law enforcement.- CargoNet, the cargo theft prevention and recovery network along with their 24/7 Command Center become an extension of your cargo security program.

Cargo NOS
Cargo Not Otherwise Specified. Typically the rate entry in a tariff that can apply to commodities not covered under a specific item or sub-item in the applicable tariff.

Cargo Ramp
A dedicated load/unload facility for cargo aircraft.

Carload Rate
A rate applicable to a carload of goods.

Cargo Tonnage
Most ocean freight is billed on the basis of weight or measurement tons (W/M). Weight tons can be expressed in short tons of 2000 pounds, long tons of 2240 pounds or metric tons of 1000 kilos (2204.62 pounds). Measurement tons are usually expressed as cargo measurement of 40 cubic feet (1.12 meters) or cubic meters (35.3 cubic feet.)

Carload
Quantity of freight (in tons) required to fill a railcar; amount normally required to qualify for a carload rate.

Carmack
An industry term regarding loss or damage of goods. Carmack is governed by 49 U.S.C 14706, which states that a motor carrier must:
Issue the bill of lading and pay the actual loss or injury to the property. Carriers limit their liability for release-value products, and can limit their damages to $25 a pound or $100,000 a shipment.

Carnet
A Customs document permitting the holder to temporarily carry or send merchandise into certain foreign countries (for display, demonstration or similar purposes) without paying duties or posting bonds. Any of various Customs documents required for crossing some international borders.
A customs document allowing special categories of goods to cross international borders without payment of duties.

Carrier
A firm that provides transportation services, typically owning and operating transportation equipment.
• Examples include: trucking company, railroad, airline, steamship line, parcel/express company

Carrier Certificate
Used to advise customs of the shipment’s details. By means of this document, the carrier certifies that the firm or individual named in the certificate is the owner or consignee of the cargo.

Carrier’s Certificate
A certificate required by U.S. Customs to release cargo properly to the correct party.

Carrier liability
A common carrier is liable for all shipment loss, damage, and delay with the exception of that caused by act of God, act of a public enemy, act of a public authority, act of the shipper, and the goods’ inherent nature.

Cartage 
A trucking term that refers to shipping freight within the same city or area.

Cartage Agent
A carrier who performs pickup or delivery in areas another freight company does not serve.
• Cartage agents use their own paperwork while transporting the shipment.

Certificate of Insurance
A certificate of insurance is a document issued by an insurance company/broker that is used to verify the existence of insurance coverage under specific conditions granted to listed individuals.

Certificate of Origin
A certified document showing the origin of goods; used in international commerce.

A document containing an affidavit to prove the origin of imported goods. Used for customs and foreign exchange purposes.

Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA)
A Canadian federal agency that is responsible for border enforcement, immigration enforcement and customs services.

Cash on Delivery (C.O.D.)
C.O.D. is a request to the carrier from the shipper. This request is for the carrier to pick up a check upon delivery that is payment for the goods being delivered. A C.O.D. request will be stated on the bill of lading and will state accepted forms of payment (company check or cashier’s check).

Claim
Cargo: A Cargo Claim is a demand made on a transportation company for payment for goods allegedly lost or damaged while the shipment was in the transportation provider’s possession. Pursuant to the National Motor Freight Classification (NMFC) Uniform Bill of Lading, all cargo claims must be filed within nine months.

Centralized Dispatching
The organization of the dispatching function into one central location. This structure often involves the use of data collection devices for communication between the centralized dispatching function, which usually reports to the production control department and the shop manufacturing departments.

Chargeback
A chargeback is basically a financial penalty placed against a supplier by a customer when a shipment to the customer does not meet the agreed upon terms and conditions. Examples of where suppliers may be charged back would include late shipments, lack of proper packaging and labeling (compliance labels), incorrect shipping terms (shipping collect instead of prepaid or not using the correct carrier or account).

Chassis
A trailer-type device with wheels constructed to accommodate containers, which are lifted on and off.

Claim
Charges made against a carrier for loss, damage, delay, or overcharge.

Class I Carrier
A classification of regulated carriers based upon annual operating revenues-motor carrier of property greater than or equal to $5 million; railroads: greater than or equal to $50 million: motor carriers of passengers; greater than or equal to $3 million.

Class II Carrier
A classification of regulated carriers based upon annual operating revenues-motor carrier of property $1- $5 million; railroads: $10-$50 million: motor carriers of passengers; less than or equal to $3 million.

Class III Carrier (see next column)

Class III Carrier
A classification of regulated carriers based upon annual operating revenues-motor carrier of property less than or equal to $1 million; railroads: greater than or equal to $10 million.

Classification
Classification is used to assign rates to shipments. They are based on density, size, and value of the freight. The NMFC board has created a guide that is universally accepted by all major LTL freight carriers. Correct classification is crucial to receiving accurate freight quotes.

Classification Yard
A railroad terminal area where railcars are grouped together to form train units.

Clearance
The official authorization for something to proceed or take place.

Coastal Shipping
Also known as short-sea or coastwise shipping, describes marine shipping operations between ports along a single coast or involving a short sea crossing.

Container on Flatcar (COFC)
Containers resting on railway flatcars without a chassis underneath.

Collect Freight
Freight payable to the carrier at the port of discharge or ultimate destination. The consignee does not pay the freight charge if the cargo does not arrive at the destination.

Collective Paper
All documents (commercial invoices, bills of lading, etc.) submitted to a buyer for the purpose of receiving payment for a shipment.

Collect Terms
Collect terms state that the consignee is responsible for the freight charges.

Combi Aircraft
An aircraft specially designed to carry unitized cargo loads on the upper deck of the craft, forward of the passenger area.

Commodity
An Item that is traded in commerce. The term usually implies an undifferentiated product competing primarily on price and availability.

Common Carrier
A for-hire carrier providing transportation services to the general public. Obligations: to serve, to deliver, to charge reasonable rates, to avoid discrimination. Previously regulated in the United States; most are now deregulated.

Concealed Loss
When the recipient of a package is not able to see damage to the item(s) until the package is opened. The damage was not visible at the time of delivery.

Container freight station to container freight station (CFS/CFS)
Container freight station to container freight station. Shipping term meaning that goods will be packed into container(s) at the port of origin and unpacked at the port of destination at the carrier’s risk and expense. Also called pier to pier.

Container Freight Station (CFS)
A shipping dock where cargo is loaded (“stuffed”) into or unloaded (“stripped”) from containers. Generally, this involves less than container load shipments, although small shipments destined to same consignee are often consolidated. Container reloading from/to rail or motor carrier equipment is a typical activity.

Consign
To hand over, deliver formally, officially, to commit.

Consignee
The consignee is the entity who is financially responsible (the buyer) for the receipt of a shipment. Generally, but not always, the consignee is the same as the receiver.

A party (usually a buyer) named by the consignor (usually a seller) in transportation documents as the party to whose order a consignment will be delivered at the port of destination.

The consignee is considered to be the owner of the consignment for the purpose of filing the customs declaration, and for paying duties and taxes. Formal ownership of the consignment, however, transfers to the consignee only upon payment of the seller’s invoice in full.

Consignor
The consignor is the person or business that originates the shipment. Also, known as the shipper.

Consolidation
When two or more shipments are combined to save money on freight shipping costs.

Contract Carrier
A carrier that does not serve the general public, but provides transportation for hire for one or a limited number of shippers under a specific contract.

Capacity
The physical facilities, personnel and process available to meet the product of service needs of the customers. Capacity generally refers to the maximum output or producing ability of a machine, a person, a process, a factory, a product, or a service.

Car Seal
Metal strip and lead fastener used for locking freight car or truck doors. Seals are numbered for record purposes.

CARAT
Cargo Agents Reservation Air Waybill Issuance and Tracking (CARAT)

Carfloat
A barge equipped with tracks on which up to about 12 railroad cars are moved in harbors or inland waterways.

Cargo Insurance
Provides liability insurance for transportation carrier who carry the cargo of others and is used in the event that the cargo is destroyed, damaged, stolen, or otherwise declared a loss while in the process of being shipped.

Cargo Manifest
A document (manifest) that lists all cargo carried on a specific vessel voyage.

Cargo Net Services (CNS)
CargoNet provides a multi-layered solution to the cargo theft problem. CargoNet helps prevent cargo theft and increases recovery rates by facilitating secure information sharing among theft victims, their business partners, and law enforcement.- CargoNet, the cargo theft prevention and recovery network along with their 24/7 Command Center become an extension of your cargo security program.

Cargo NOS
Cargo Not Otherwise Specified. Typically the rate entry in a tariff that can apply to commodities not covered under a specific item or sub-item in the applicable tariff.

Cargo Ramp
A dedicated load/unload facility for cargo aircraft.

Carload Rate
A rate applicable to a carload of goods.

Cargo Tonnage
Most ocean freight is billed on the basis of weight or measurement tons (W/M). Weight tons can be expressed in short tons of 2000 pounds, long tons of 2240 pounds or metric tons of 1000 kilos (2204.62 pounds). Measurement tons are usually expressed as cargo measurement of 40 cubic feet (1.12 meters) or cubic meters (35.3 cubic feet.)

Carload
Quantity of freight (in tons) required to fill a railcar; amount normally required to qualify for a carload rate.

Carmack
An industry term regarding loss or damage of goods. Carmack is governed by 49 U.S.C 14706, which states that a motor carrier must:
Issue the bill of lading and pay the actual loss or injury to the property. Carriers limit their liability for release-value products, and can limit their damages to $25 a pound or $100,000 a shipment.

Carnet
A Customs document permitting the holder to temporarily carry or send merchandise into certain foreign countries (for display, demonstration or similar purposes) without paying duties or posting bonds. Any of various Customs documents required for crossing some international borders.
A customs document allowing special categories of goods to cross international borders without payment of duties.

Carrier
A firm that provides transportation services, typically owning and operating transportation equipment.
• Examples include: trucking company, railroad, airline, steamship line, parcel/express company

Carrier Certificate
Used to advise customs of the shipment’s details. By means of this document, the carrier certifies that the firm or individual named in the certificate is the owner or consignee of the cargo.

Carrier’s Certificate
A certificate required by U.S. Customs to release cargo properly to the correct party.

Carrier Liability
A common carrier is liable for all shipment loss, damage, and delay with the exception of that caused by act of God, act of a public enemy, act of a public authority, act of the shipper, and the goods’ inherent nature.

Cartage 
A trucking term that refers to shipping freight within the same city or area.

Cartage Agent
A carrier who performs pickup or delivery in areas another freight company does not serve.
• Cartage agents use their own paperwork while transporting the shipment.

Certificate of Insurance
A certificate of insurance is a document issued by an insurance company/broker that is used to verify the existence of insurance coverage under specific conditions granted to listed individuals.

Certificate of Origin
A certified document showing the origin of goods; used in international commerce.

A document containing an affidavit to prove the origin of imported goods. Used for customs and foreign exchange purposes.

Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA)
A Canadian federal agency that is responsible for border enforcement, immigration enforcement and customs services.

Cash on Delivery (C.O.D.)
C.O.D. is a request to the carrier from the shipper. This request is for the carrier to pick up a check upon delivery that is payment for the goods being delivered. A C.O.D. request will be stated on the bill of lading and will state accepted forms of payment (company check or cashier’s check).

Claim
Cargo: A Cargo Claim is a demand made on a transportation company for payment for goods allegedly lost or damaged while the shipment was in the transportation provider’s possession. Pursuant to the National Motor Freight Classification (NMFC) Uniform Bill of Lading, all cargo claims must be filed within nine months.

Centralized Dispatching
The organization of the dispatching function into one central location. This structure often involves the use of data collection devices for communication between the centralized dispatching function, which usually reports to the production control department and the shop manufacturing departments.

Chargeback
A chargeback is basically a financial penalty placed against a supplier by a customer when a shipment to the customer does not meet the agreed upon terms and conditions. Examples of where suppliers may be charged back would include late shipments, lack of proper packaging and labeling (compliance labels), incorrect shipping terms (shipping collect instead of prepaid or not using the correct carrier or account).

Chassis
A trailer-type device with wheels constructed to accommodate containers, which are lifted on and off.

Container freight station to container freight station (CFS/CFS)
Container freight station to container freight station. Shipping term meaning that goods will be packed into container(s) at the port of origin and unpacked at the port of destination at the carrier’s risk and expense. Also called pier to pier.

Container Freight Station (CFS)
A shipping dock where cargo is loaded (“stuffed”) into or unloaded (“stripped”) from containers. Generally, this involves less than container load shipments, although small shipments destined to same consignee are often consolidated. Container reloading from/to rail or motor carrier equipment is a typical activity.

Consign
To hand over, deliver formally, officially, to commit.

Consignee
The consignee is the entity who is financially responsible (the buyer) for the receipt of a shipment. Generally, but not always, the consignee is the same as the receiver.

A party (usually a buyer) named by the consignor (usually a seller) in transportation documents as the party to whose order a consignment will be delivered at the port of destination.

The consignee is considered to be the owner of the consignment for the purpose of filing the customs declaration, and for paying duties and taxes. Formal ownership of the consignment, however, transfers to the consignee only upon payment of the seller’s invoice in full.

Consignor
The consignor is the person or business that originates the shipment. Also, known as the shipper.

Consolidation
When two or more shipments are combined to save money on freight shipping costs.

Contract Carrier
A carrier that does not serve the general public, but provides transportation for hire for one or a limited number of shippers under a specific contract.

Container
A “box”’ typically ten to forty feet long, which is used primarily for ocean freight shipment. For travel to and from ports, containers are loaded onto truck chassis’ or on railroad flatcars.

A container looks like a truck trailer with no wheels and is now among the most common freight shipping methods in the United States and abroad. Containers are used for intermodal shipping and come in standard sizes to ensure they fit on standard trucks, rail cars and container ships.

A single, rigid, sealed, reusable metal box in which merchandise is shipped by vessel, truck, or rail. Container types include standard, high cube, hardtop, open top, flat, platform, ventilated, insulated, refrigerated, or bulk. Usually 8 ft. x 8 ft. in width and height, 20 to 55 ft. long.

Specialized containers also exist for air transportation modes, but are much smaller and cannot be directly transferred to truck or rail.

Containers, Chassis, and Vans (Trailers)
Standard trucking companies use vans (or trailers) to move standard dry goods. These trailers consist of a storage box that is permanently attached to a set of wheels (the set of wheels is often known as a truck). Intermodal ocean containers are moved on the road by attaching them to a separate piece of equipment, a chassis, which is essentially a set of wheels on a lightweight frame.

Containerization
A shipment method in which commodities are placed in containers, and after initial loading, the commodities per se are not re-handled in shipment until they are unloaded at destination.

Containerized Cargo
Cargo that is transported in containers that can be transferred easily from one transportation mode to another.

To package (cargo) in large standardized containers for efficient shipping and handling.

Corrected Bill Of Lading (CBL)
A corrected bill of lading (CBL) is a documented that the shipper would issue to amend the original bill of lading (BOL).

Compliance, Safety, Accountability (CSA)
Customs Self Assessment (CSA) program is designed for low-risk, pre-approved importers, carriers and registered drivers. To take advantage of the program, CSA-approved importers and carriers must use a registered driver to carry CSA-eligible goods into Canada in the highway mode.

The CSA program simplifies many of the import border requirements so that low-risk shipments can be processed more quickly and efficiently at the border, saving businesses time and money.
It also allows the CBSA to better focus its resources on identifying high-risk shipments that pose a potential threat to the health, safety or economic well-being of Canadians.

Cost and Insurance (CI)
A price that includes the cost of the goods, the marine insurance and all transportation charges except the ocean freight to the named point of destination.

Cross Dock
Transportation terminal in which received items transferred directly from inbound to the outbound shipping dock, with storage only occurring temporarily during unloading and loading. No long-term storage is provided. Usually used only for vehicle transfers. Often owned and operated by large shippers.

Cross Docking
Cross-docking is the action of unloading materials from an incoming trailer or rail car and immediately loading these materials in outbound trailers or rail cars, thus eliminating the need for warehousing

Cube
A measure of the volume of rectangular shaped three-dimensional objects or spaces. Cube is calculated my multiplying the length times the width times the height of the object or space.

Customs
A governmental agency charged with enforcing the rules passed to protect the country’s import and export revenues.

The authorities designated to collect duties levied by a country on imports and exports

Customs Automated Forms Entry System (CAFES)
A reporting system to CBP about shipments traveling under a carrier’s bond for clearance or exportation at another port.

Customs Bonded Warehouse
A warehouse which is authorized by Customs to receive duty-free merchandise.

Customhouse Broker
A person or firm, licensed by the treasury department of their country when required, engaged in entering and clearing goods through Customs for a client or importer.

Customs Brokerage
A customs broker or brokerage is a person or organization that acts as a clearing or goods through the custom barriers for imports and exporters. This involves the preparation of shipment documents and / or electronic form submissions, the calculation and payment of taxes, duties, and excises, and also facilitating the communication between government authorities and importer and exporters.

Custom brokers may be employed by or affiliated with freight forwarders, shipping lines, importer, exporters, trade authorities, and customer brokerage firms.

Customs Entry
All countries require that the importer make a declaration on incoming foreign goods. The importer then normally pays a duty on the imported merchandise. The importer’s statement is compared against the carrier’s vessel manifest to ensure that all foreign goods are properly declared.

Customs Invoice
A government form requiring all data in a commercial invoice along with a certificate of value and / or a certificate of origin. Required in a few countries and usually serves as a seller’s commercial invoice.

A document that contains a declaration by the seller, the shipper, or the agent as to the value of the shipment.

Customs Trade Partnership against Terrorism (C-TRAT)
A voluntary supply chain security program led by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) focused on improving the security of private companies’ supply chains with respect to terrorism.

Today, more than 10,000 certified partners that span the gamut of the trade community have been accepted into the program. These include U.S. importers, U.S./Canada highway carriers; U.S./Mexico highway carriers; rail and sea carriers; licensed U.S. Customs brokers; U.S. marine port authority/terminal operators; U.S. freight consolidators; ocean transportation intermediaries and non‐operating common carriers; Mexican and Canadian manufacturers; and Mexican long‐haul carriers.
By extending the United States’ zone of security to the point of origin, the customs‐trade partnership allows for better risk assessment and targeting, freeing CBP to allocate inspectional resources to more questionable shipments.

Customs Value
The value of the imported goods on which duties will be assessed.

Cubage
Cubic volume of space being used or available for shipping or storage.

Cubic Capacity
The total freight load capacity of any truck, train or ship is measured in cubic feet, and therefore the carrying capacity is known in the industry as cubic capacity.

Customs Brokerage
Customs brokerage is a profession that involves the “clearing” of goods through customs barriers for importers and exporters (usually businesses). This involves the preparation of documents and/or electronic submissions, the calculation and payment of taxes, duties and excises, and facilitating communication between government authorities and importers and exporters.

Customs Broker
A person or company who is licensed by the U.S. Treasury Department to act on behalf of freight importers and exporters with respect to U.S. Customs transactions.

Customs-Trade Partnership against Terrorism (C-TPAT)
The Customs-Trade Partnership against Terrorism program is a voluntary initiative designed by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) that focuses on the development of cooperative relationships between Customs and the business community. The goal of this program is to strengthen the security of our borders as well as the security of the overall supply chain while facilitating the flow of legitimate trade.

C-TPAT membership pertains to border crossing of transport goods into and out of Mexico, U.S and Canada. Shipment carriers via highway, air, rail and sea.

The benefit of C-TPAT membership, the corporate plays an active role in the war again terrorism and sponsor good corporate citizenship, reduces number of CBP inspections, and C-TPAT receives priority front-of-line CBP inspections.

Dangerous goods
Sometimes called hazardous goods which can be in the form of solids, liquids, or gases that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment. They are often subject to chemical regulations.

Deadweight
The number of long tons that a vessel can transport of cargo, supplies and fuel. It is the difference between the number of tons of water a vessel displaces light (empty) and the number of tons it displaces when submerged to the load line.

Dead-Head
A portion of a transportation trip in which no freight is conveyed; an empty move. Transportation equipment is often dead-headed because of imbalances in supply and demand.

Deck Trailers
Trailers with rows of tracking on each sidewall and deck load bars. The load bars fit into the tracks to form temporary “decks” on which goods can be loaded. Decks allow more goods to be loaded in the trailer, reduce damage and speed loading and unloading.

Delivered at Frontier (DAF)
This term can be used when the goods are transported by rail and road. The seller pays for transportation to the named place of delivery at the frontier. The buyer arranges for customs clearance and pays for transportation from the frontier to his factory. The passing of risk occurs at the frontier.

Delivered at Place (DAP)
DAP transactions require the seller to arrange and pay the transportation of the goods to a place designated by the buyer, and the buyer to pay import duties and taxes on arrival of the goods.

Deliver Duty Paid (DDP)
Delivered duty paid (DDP) is a transaction in which the seller must pay for all of the costs related to transporting the goods and is responsible in full for the goods until they have been received and transferred to the buyer. This includes paying for the shipping, the duties and any other expenses incurred while shipping the goods.

Delivered Duty Unpaid (DDU)
This term means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer to the named place of destination in the contract of sale. A transaction in international trade where the seller is responsible for making a safe delivery of goods to a named destination, paying all transportation expenses but not the duty. The seller bears the risks and costs associated with supplying the goods to the delivery location, where the buyer becomes responsible for paying the duty and other customs clearing expenses.

Delivered Ex Quay (DEQ)
This is similar to DES, but the passing of risk does not occur until the goods have been unloaded at the port of discharge.

Delivered Ex Ship (DES)
Where goods are delivered ex ship, the passing of risk does not occur until the ship has arrived at the named port of destination and the goods made available for unloading to the buyer. The seller pays the same freight and insurance costs as he would under a CIF arrangement. Unlike CFR and CIF terms, the seller has agreed to bear not just cost, but also Risk and Title up to the arrival of the vessel at the named port. Costs for unloading the goods and any duties, taxes, etc. are for the Buyer. A commonly used term in shipping bulk commodities, such as coal, grain, dry chemicals; and where the seller either owns or has chartered their own vessel.

Delivery Receipt
Document a consignee or its agent dates and signs at delivery, stating the condition of the goods at delivery. The driver takes the signed delivery receipt to the terminal for retention. The customer retains the remaining copy.

Demurrage
Demurrage is the detention of a container or freight vehicle beyond the estimated timeframe.

Density (DPCF)
Density is the measurement of the volume of a shipment. The calculation for density is equal to the weight of the product divided by (length x width x height / 1728). Density is measured in pounds/cubic foot. DPCF Equals [Weight / (LXWXH/1728)]

Department of Transport (DOT)
A federal cabinet department of the U.S. government dedicated to ensuring a fast, safe, efficient, accessible and convenient transportation system.

Detention Fee / Demurrage
Penalty charges assessed by a carrier to a shipper or consignee for holding transportation equipment, i.e. trailers, containers, railcars, longer than a stipulated time for loading or unloading.

Penalty assessed against a consignor, consignee, or other such party responsible for delay in loading or unloading of a shipping vessel or for undue detention (usually over 48 hours) of the transportation equipment. Also called detention charge.

Direct Point
A direct point is a zip code that receives service by the contracted carriers own equipment and driver.

Dispatch
The act of sending a driver on his/her assigned route with instructions and required shipping papers. SLG maintains contact with drivers throughout the day by phone, pager, radio, satellite communication or cellular phone.

Distribution Center (DC)
The warehouse facility which holds inventory from manufacturing pending distribution to the appropriate stores.

Diversion / Reconsignment
A diversion is a route change made to a shipment in transit.

Diversion is also a tactic used by shippers to change the destination (consignee) of freight while the goods are in transit. The shipper will notify the carrier prior to the arrival of freight at the destination of the new consignee, and the carrier will adjust the freight routing accordingly. Reconsignment is a similar concept, except that the shipper notifies the carrier of the new consignee after the freight arrives at the destination, but (obviously) before delivery/unpacking. Carriers impose extra charges for these services typically, but they provide flexibility to the shipper.

Dock
A platform, generally the same height as the trailer floor, where trucks are loaded and unloaded.

Dock Receipt
A dock receipt is given when a shipment is received or delivered at a pier or a dock. The dock receipt is surrendered to the transportation line and a bill of lading is issued when delivery of shipment is completed.

Dolly
Converter that provides an extra axle and fifth wheel and is used to connect multiple trailers.

Domicile
A person’s or organizations fixed, permanent, and principal home or place of business for legal purposes.

Doubles
Vehicle configuration in which a tractor pulls two trailers connected by a dolly or jifflox.

Double-Stack
Railcar movement of containers stacked two high.

Drayage
Drayage is the transportation of goods over a short distance. It is often as part of a longer overall move and is typically completed in a single work shift.

Drayage is a truck pickup from or a truck delivery to a seaport, border point, inland port, or intermodal rail terminal with both the trip origin and destination in the same urban area.

The term drayage is also used for the fee paid for such services.

Driver Collect
Driver collect is a term that relates to freight charges. It means that the driver collects the freight charges from the consignee at the time of delivery.

Drop
A situation in which an equipment operator deposits a trailer or boxcar at a facility at which it is to be loaded or unloaded.

Dropped COD
A dropped COD occurs when a driver does not pick up a COD check at the time of delivery.

Dunnage
Wood and packaging materials used to keep cargo in place inside a container or transportation vehicle.

Durable Goods
Generally, any goods whose continuous serviceability is likely to exceed three years.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
The electronic transmission of routine business documents, such as purchase orders, invoices and bills of lading, between computers in a standard format. The data formats, or transaction sets, are usually sent between mainframe computers. Learn more in the EDI Resource Center.

Embargo
An embargo is any event that prevents the freight from being accepted or handled. Embargo events include floods, tornadoes or congested highways.

ESAR – Entry Summary, Accounts and Revenue
ESAR capabilities integrate and enhance ACE’s automated entry summary processing. These ESAR features of ACE enable CBP and its trade partners to interact electronically.

Ex Works (EXW – Name Place of Delivery)
The seller makes the goods available at their premises, or at another named place. This term places the maximum obligation on the buyer and minimum obligations on the seller. The Ex Works term is often used when making an initial quotation for the sale of goods without any costs included.

EXW means that a buyer incurs the risks for bringing the goods to their final destination. Either the seller does not load the goods on collecting vehicles and does not clear them for export, or if the seller does load the goods, he does so at buyer’s risk and cost. If the parties agree that the seller should be responsible for the loading of the goods on departure and to bear the risk and all costs of such loading, this must be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale.

Exceptions
When a problem such as shortage or damage is noted at the time of delivery, an exception is noted on the delivery sheet before it is signed to designate there was a problem with the shipment.

Exclusive Use
A shipper pays a premium rate for the sole use of a trailer. The trailer will be sealed at loading, and the seal number is recorded on the manifest. The seal number is verified before the trailer is unloaded at destination. When a shipper requests an exclusive-use trailer, no other freight may be added to the unit even if space permits.

Exempt Carrier
A for-hire carrier that is free from economic regulation. Trucks hauling certain commodities are exempt from Interstate Commerce Commission economic regulation. By far the largest portion of exempt carrier transports agricultural commodities or seafood.

Exempt Product
Products that are exempt from federal regulation, such as agricultural and forestry products.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
An independent U.S. government agency charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable.

Federal Maritime Commission (FMC)
Federal Maritime Commission is an independent federal agency, based in Washington, D.C., responsible for the regulation of ocean borne international transportation of the U.S

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Association (FMCSA)
The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration is an agency in the United States Department of Transportation that regulates the trucking industry in the United States

Feeder Line Service
Feeder line service consists of short transportation lines that go from a truck line to nearby areas in order to collect and distribute freight. A feeder line service is typically 25 to 35 miles long.

Flatbed
A trailer without sides used for hauling machinery or other bulky items.

Forty-Foot Equivalent (FEU)
Method of measuring vessel load or capacity, in units of forty-foot long containers. Forty-foot equivalent unit.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
An agency within the U.S. Public Health Service that assures the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, the nation’s food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation.

Foreign Trade Zones (FTZ)
Specified areas with favorable regulations for border trading.

Free Alongside Ship (FAS)
The seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the buyer’s vessel at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment.

Free and Secure Trade (FAST)
An agreement between the U.S., Canada and Mexico on joint border security initiatives. The Free and Secure Trade program is a commercial clearance program designed to ensure safety and security while expediting legitimate trade across the Canada–U.S. border. TSA freight-approved participants are identified as low risk.

Free-on-Board Point (FOB)
Point at which ownership of freight changes hands from shipper to consignee. FOB origin indicates that consignee owns the goods in transit; FOB-destination indicates that shipper owns goods in transit. Owner of goods in transit is liable for loss and damage to freight, and thus should provide insurance.

Freight All Kinds (FAK)
Goods classified FAK are usually charged higher rates than those marked with a specific classification and are frequently in a container that includes various classes of cargo.

Free On Board Destination (FOBD)
Under this arrangement, title and risk remain with the seller until it has delivered the goods to the location specified in the contract.

Free On Board Dock (FOBD)
Free on board (FOB) dock means that the title changes hands at the shippers dock so the freight charges are collect.

Free Along Aide (FAS)
A basis of pricing meaning the price of goods alongside a transport vessel at a specified location. The buyer is responsible for loading the goods onto the transport vessel and paying all the cost of shipping beyond that location.

Free Time
Free time is the amount of time that freight is held before storage charges begin accruing.

Free-On-Board (FOB)
An acronym for free on board when used in a sales contract. The seller agrees to deliver merchandise, free of all transportation expense, to the place specified by the contract. After delivery is complete, the title to all the goods and the risk of damage become the buyer’s.

Free Trade Zone (FTZ)
An area or zone set aside at or near a port or airport, under the control of the U.S. Customs Service, for holding goods duty-free pending customs clearance.

Freight
Any product being transported.

Freight Bill
A freight bill, which also is referred to as a bill of lading, is a legal contract between the shipper and the carrier. The freight bill includes the necessary details of the transaction and typically is signed by the shipper and the carrier. It is used by accounting personnel as support documentation to justify billing the shipper or the receiver, depending on the terms of the contract, for the successful delivery of goods.

Freight Broker
Any person that sells transportation without actually providing it. The term usually refers to an agent for truckload shipments, matching small shippers with carriers. Freight brokers often do not accept any responsibility for their shipments. Also known as freight forwarder and shipper’s agent.

Freight Charge
The freight charge is the amount that is due for freight transportation.

Freight FOB Terms-of-Sale
Indicates (1) Who arranges for transport and carrier, (2) Who pays for transport, (3) Where/when does title (ownership) of goods transfer from seller to buyer (FOB point). Freight charges: collect, prepaid, prepaid and charged back. Collect: Buyer pays the freight charges. Prepaid: seller pays. Prepaid and charged back: seller prepays (bears), bills buyer for the charges.

Examples:
• FOB-origin, freight collect: consignee pays freight charges and owns goods in transit.
• FOB-destination, freight prepaid: shipper pays freight charges and owns goods in transit.
• FOB-destination, freight prepaid and charged back: shipper owns goods in transit, pays for freight but bills consignee for the charges.

Freight Forwarder
A freight forwarder, forwarder, or forwarding agent, also known as a non-vessel operating common carrier (NVOCC), is a person or company that organizes shipments for individuals or corporations to get goods from the manufacturer or producer to a market, customer or final point of distribution.

Forwarders contract with a carrier or often multiple carriers to move the goods. A freight forwarder may or may not move the goods on their own equipment, and also acts as an expert in the logistics network.

These carriers can use a variety of shipping modes, including ships, airplanes, trucks, and railroads, and often multiple modes for a single shipment.

For example, the freight forwarder may arrange to have cargo moved from a plant to an airport by truck, flown to the destination city, then moved from the airport to a customer’s building by another truck.

Freight forwards may also provide other shipping services: packaging, temporary freight storage, customs clearing.

Freight Rate
A freight rate a price at which a certain cargo is delivered from one point to another. The price depends on the form of the cargo, the mode of transport (truck, ship, train, aircraft), the weight of the cargo, and the distance to the delivery destination.

Many shipping services, especially air carriers, use dimensional weight for calculating the price, which takes into account both weight and volume of the cargo.

Freight Size
Freight is most often measured by its weight, and transportation vehicles of varying sizes typically have weight capacities that cannot be exceeded due to engineering or regulatory reasons. Freight may also be measured by cube, which generally refers to the volume of the freight. A vehicle is said to cube-out if it does not exceed its weight capacity, but its volume is completely full.

Freight Weight Measures
Short ton (American) 2000 lbs. Long ton (English) 2240 lbs. Metric ton (1000 kg.) 2204.6 lbs.

Full Container Load: Ocean or Rail (FCL)
An ocean-shipping and intermodal industry term; a full container-load shipment is when a shipper contracts for the transportation of an entire container. The vast majority of intermodal and ocean freight is contracted in this manner. Historically, FCL also stands for full carload which is the primary business of all modern railroads, and is the railroad equivalent of TL trucking.

Fuel Surcharge
A fuel surcharge is an extra fee charged by trucking companies (or third parties) to cover the fluctuating cost of fuel. It is calculated as a percentage of base rate and is usually added to a shipper’s freight bill to cover the cost of operations.

Gross Weight
• Gross weight is the weight of the freight including the packaging.
• Gross weight is the weight of a truck including its contents.

Gross vehicle weight (GVW)
The combined total weight of a vehicle and its freight.

Harbor Maintenance Fee (HMF)
A CBP fee applied to all ocean shipments arriving in the U.S.

Hazardous Material
A substance or material which the Department of Transportation has determined to be capable of posing a risk to health, safety, and property when stored or transported in commerce.

Hazmat Teams
Hazmat teams are personnel specially trained to handle dangerous goods, which include materials that are radioactive, explosive, corrosive, oxidizing, asphyxiating, biohazardous, toxic, pathogenic, or allergenic.
Hoopie
A hoopie is a tractor and a trailer that are on the same frame and do not disconnect. A hoopie is usually used for deliveries in downtown city spaces.

Hours of Service
Ruling that stipulates the amount of time a driver is allotted to work.

Hub
A common connection point for devices in a network. Referenced for a transportation network as in “hub and spoke” which is common in the airline and trucking industry.

Hundredweight / CWT
100 pounds. A common shipping weight unit.

Haustler
A haustler is equipment used to move trailers around a terminal facility. Also known as a yard dog.

Imaging
Imaging is a system that is used to store digital images of documents.

Inbound Freight
Shipments coming from vendors to a storage facility.

In-Bond
Goods on which a duty or tax is due are “in bond” when placed in the custody of a government or bonded warehouse or are moving by bonded carrier. Bonding guarantees that the duty will be paid.

In-Bond Shipment
A shipment status in which goods are permitted to enter a country and temporarily stored for transport to a final destination where the duty will be paid.

Inbound Logistics
The movement of materials from shippers and vendors into production processes or storage facilities.

Indemnity Bond
A bond that promises to indemnify the obligee against losses stemming from the principal’s failure to perform.

Indirect Air Carrier (IAC)
An Indirect Air Carrier (IAC) means any entity within the United States not in possession of a Federal Aviation Administration air carrier operating certificate, that undertakes to engage indirectly in air transportation of property and uses for all or any part of such transportation the services of a passenger air carrier. Each Indirect Air Carrier must adopt and carry out a security program that meets Transportation Security Administration (TSA) requirements.

Inland Carrier
An inland carrier is a transportation line that carries import or export traffic between ports and inland areas.

Inland Tariff Bureau
The Inland Tariff Bureau is an organization that publishes tariffs and manages updates while ensuring that the public has access to the documents.

Inside Delivery (Business)
Inside delivery is if you need the driver to go inside the location to deliver the shipment instead of dropping it off at the loading dock. This service is only provided for business locations, not homes or any areas deemed to be a residential area.

This service includes delivery to the first floor of the building. Additional fees will apply if service is required on other floors.

Insurance, All-risk
This type of insurance offers the shipper the broadest coverage available, covering against all losses that may occur in transit.

Integrated Services
The transport of freight by more than one type of transportation mode. Example include truck, rail, ocean, air. Integrated services is needed when there are no direct connection between the points of departure and destination.

A system in Customers and Border Protection Service that allows for the electronic lodging of Formal Import Declarations by brokers or importers for all goods imported into the country. The system permits brokers to pay fees using Electronic Funds Transfers in variable amounts.

Interchange Points
Interchange points are where freight is interchanged between two transportation lines. The interchange point zip code typically determines the split of the revenue.

Interchange of Interline
A interline is a transportation company that performs one part of the freight transaction. They typically agree to bill or pay other carriers for the other parts of the freight transaction so that their customer only receives one bill.

Interline Freight
Freight moving from point of origin to destination over the lines of two or more transportation lines.

Interline Freight
Interline freight moves over the lines of two or more transportation companies from point of origin to destination.

Intermediate Carrier
An intermediate carrier is a transportation line that hauls a shipment between two transportation systems. An intermediate carrier does not originate or deliver the shipment.

Intermodal
Intermodal shipping is a method of moving cargo that involves more than one kind of cargo transportation, whether truck, rail, ship or plane.

Intermodal transportation use special containers so cargo can be transferred from ship to rail to truck without having to be repacked. The most common combination used is truck and rail.

A typical example of intermodal is where the cargo is picked up at the point of origin by a truck, transported to a loading site onto a train and shipped the majority of the distance by rail, and then unloaded and transported by truck to the final destination.

A major benefit of this arrangement is lower fuel costs, as trains are estimated three to four times more efficient than long-haul over-the-road trucks. The drawbacks of intermodal freight is less flexibility time-frames, the limited destination due to of train routes, and slower shipping times.

Intermodal Market Company (IMC)
Intermodal marketing companies do more than just transport goods from one place to another. Instead, they offer a comprehensive transportation and logistics solution by providing containers when necessary, and transportation by multiple methods, including water, air and land transport.

An intermodal marketing company provides a single party solution for a shipper’s needs. This can result in cost savings for the shipper if the shipper requires multiple forms of shipping transportation to reach the goods finial destination.

Intermodal Terminal
Intermodal transportation is any movement of goods using more than one mode of transportation. Often, intermodal refers to the combination of rail and truck service. This combination creates efficiencies in your supply chain by providing more equipment options, greener miles, and often, a lower priced alternative to truck transportation. In certain lanes over 500 miles, intermodal also gives you the most effective combination of rates, service, trailer size, and mode—all configured to meet your exact requirements.

Internal Water Carriers
Water carriers that operate over internal, navigable rivers such as the Mississippi, Ohio, and Missouri.

Interstate Commerce Commission
The Interstate Commerce Commission is the federal organization that is responsible for enforcing acts of Congress relating to interstate commerce.

Intermodal Transportation
When freight is shipped using two or more modes of transportation. This typically refers to truck-rail-truck shipments.
Example: Ocean shipping containers which can be hauled by trucks on chassis, railcars, ocean vessels, and barges.

International Air Transportation Association (IATA)
The International Air Transport Association works with its airline members and the air transport industry as a whole to promote safe, reliable, secure and economical air travel for the benefit of the world’s consumers.

Inventory
The number of units and/or value of the stock of good a company holds.

Importer Self Assessment (ISA)
A voluntary program where participants review their compliance and report to CBP periodically on findings so they do not undergo a Customs audits (focused assessments).

Importer Security Filing (ISF)
The process of reporting 10 data elements to U.S. Customs for shipments bound to a U.S. port. Importer Security Filing is required to comply with the new U.S. 10+2 regulations.

Jifflox
Converter that provides an extra axle and fifth wheel and is used to connect multiple trailers.

Just-in-Time (JIT)
Cargo or components that must be at a destination at the exact time needed. The container or vehicle is the movable warehouse.

Loading
The action or process of loading a ship or other vessel with cargo.

Lane
The combination of the origin and destination points.

Lead-Time
The total time that elapses between an order’s placement and it receipt. It includes the time required for order transmittal, order processing, order preparation, and transit.

Less-Than-Container Load / Less-Than-Truckload (LCL / LTL)
A container or trailer loaded with cargo from more than one shipper; loads that do not by themselves meet the container load or truckload requirements.
An ocean shipping and intermodal industry term; LTL equivalent in container shipping. Container freight stations at ports serve as consolidation and deconsolidation terminals. Historically, LCL also stands for less-than-carload. Before the prominence of interstate trucking, railroads offered less-than-carload (LCL) service but this business has largely disappeared.

Less-Than-Truckload (LTL)
LTL shipments typically weigh between 151 and 20,000 lb (68 and 9,072 kg). Less than Truckload carriers use “hub and spoke” operations where small local terminals are the spokes (‘end of line’) and larger more central terminals are the hubs (also called Distribution Centers or DC’s). Spoke terminals collect local freight from various shippers and consolidate that freight onto enclosed trailers for transporting to the delivering or hub terminal where the freight will be further sorted and consolidated for additional transporting (also known as linehauling). In most cases, the end of line terminals employ local drivers who start the day by loading up their trailers and heading out to make deliveries first. Then when the trailer is empty they begin making pickups and return to the terminal for sorting and delivery next day. Because of the efficiency of this order of operations most deliveries are performed in the morning and pickups are made in the afternoon.

Level of Service (LOS)
A qualitative assessment of a road’s operating conditions. For local government comprehensive planning purposes, level of service means an indicator of the extent or degree of service provided by, or proposed to be provided by, a facility based on and related to the operational characteristics of the facility. Level of service indicates the capacity per unit of demand for each public facility.

Lien
A legal claim upon goods for the satisfaction of a debt or duty.

Lift Gate
A lift gate attaches to the back of a trailer that can be raised and lowered between the ground and the trailer deck. There is typically an accessorial charge for lift gate service.

Lift-On / Lift-Off Cargo (Lo / Lo)
Containerized cargo that must be lifted on and off vessels and other vehicles using handling equipment.

Line Driver
A line driver is a driver that does not typically pick up or deliver shipments. Instead a line driver moves freight between terminals.

Line Haul Only
Means no fuel charge included in rate to truck.

Line Haul
The movement of freight over the road / rail from origin terminal to destination terminal, usually over long distances.

A shipment that moves between cities and over distances more than 100 to 150 miles in length.

Liner Shipping
Liners are vessels sailing between specified ports on a regular schedule; schedule is published and available to the public. Most large container shipping companies operate liner services.

Liquid Bulk Cargo
A type of bulk cargo that consists of liquid items, such as petroleum, water, or liquid natural gas.

Live Load
A situation in which the equipment operation stays with the trailer or boxcar while being loaded or unloaded.

Lock
A channel where the water rises and falls to allow boats to travel a dammed river.

Logbook
A daily record of the hours an interstate driver spends driving, off duty, sleeping in the berth, or on duty not driving.

Logistics
All activities involved in the management of product movement; delivering the right product from the right origin to the right destination, with the right quality and quantity, at the right schedule and price.

Loss and Damage
Loss or damage of freight shipments while in transit or in a carrier-operated warehouse. Terms for the handling of claims are usually stipulated in the freight bill. Shippers/consignees usually take out insurance against L&D with premiums a function of the value of goods shipped, and the likelihood of L&D.

Long Haul
A long distance.

Lumpers
Individuals that assist a motor carrier owner operator in the unloading of property; quite commonly used in the food industry.

Lumper Service
Lumper service or sometimes called Swampers is a common term when delivering to large warehouse distribution centers. This service is usually a 3rd party service that the location pays to unload the inbound freight. Additional service charges may apply.

Manifest
The manifest is a document that describes the shipment or the contents of a vehicle, container, or ship.

Marks
Marks are made up of letters, numbers, and characters and are put on packages for identification.

Master Bill
The master bill consolidates multiple BOLs that are going to the same consignee at the same time. This is done to receive a lower rate because of a higher total weight.

Maximum Rate
The maximum rate is the highest contracted rate that might be charged.

Minimum Rate
The minimum rate is the lowest contracted rate that might be charged.

Merchandise Processing Fee (MPF)
A fee collected by CBP on most goods imported into the U.S. that do not qualify for any special programs such as NAFTA.

Multimodal Transportation
Shipment moves by more than one mode of transportation (ground, air, rail or ocean).

National Customs Brokers & Forwarders Association of America (NCBFAA)
The objectives of this not-for-profit association are: to promote the common business interests of Customs Brokers, Ocean Transportation Intermediaries (“OTI’s”), which includes Ocean Freight Forwarders and Non-Vessel Operating Common Carriers, and Indirect Air Carriers (IACs); to encourage the maintenance of professionalism within our industry; to maintain a standard of integrity and efficiency that will protect clients and the Government in the fair, reasonable and equitable administration of import and export laws and regulations; and, to develop acquaintance and good fellowship among the members.

National Motor Freight Classification (NMFC)
Industry standard tariff published by motor carriers containing rules, descriptions and rating on all products moving in commerce; used to classify goods to rate the freight bill. You can obtain more information http://www.nmfta.org about shipment classes and the NMFC.

Neo-Bulk Cargo
Shipments consisting entirely of units of a single commodity, such as cars, lumber, or scrap metal.

Net Weight
Weight of the goods alone without any immediate wrappings, e.g., the weight of the contents of a tin can without the weight of the can. 

Nested
A term used in less than truckload (LTL freight) shipping in which materials are stacked so that one item goes inside another. Nested freight reduces the amount of space taken up by the combined freight and makes LTL shipping more efficient as a result.

Node
A fixed point in a firm’s logistics system where goods come to rest; includes plants, warehouses, supply sources, and markets.

Non-Vessel Operating Common Carriers (NVOCC)
A shipment consolidator or freight forwarder who does not own any vessel, but functions as a carrier by issuing its own bills of lading or air waybills and assuming responsibility for the shipments.

Not Otherwise Indicated (NOI)
A general class rate or NOI is assigned to any freight that has no rate listed in the NMFC.

Obligee
Obliging party (bond holder, creditor, lender, insurance policy holder, etc.) in whose favor a promise is made or an obligation is entered into by an obligor, under the terms of an agreement. Also called promisee.

Ocean Conference
Cartel of vessel operators operating between specific trade areas. Set cargo rates for liners between ports.

Ocean Freight Forwarder
A freight forwarder, forwarder, or forwarding agent, also known as a non-vessel operating common carrier (NVOCC), is a person or company that organizes shipments for individuals or corporations to get goods from the manufacturer or producer to a market, customer or final point of distribution. 

Forwarders contract with a carrier or often multiple carriers to move the goods. A forwarder does not move the goods but acts as an expert in the logistics network. These carriers can use a variety of shipping modes, including ships, airplanes, trucks, and railroads, and often multiple modes for a single shipment.

Ocean Transportation Intermediaries (OTI)
An ocean transportation intermediary is licensed by the Federal Maritime Commission (FMC) to be an ocean freight forwarder, a non-vessel operating common carrier (NVOCC), or an ocean freight forwarder and NVOCC. It is related to ocean transport.

An ocean freight forwarder is an individual or company in that they dispatch shipments from the United States via common carriers and books or otherwise arranges space for those shipments on behalf of shippers. Ocean freight forwarders also prepare and process the documentation and perform related activities pertaining to those shipments.

An NVOCC is a common carrier that holds itself out to the public to provide ocean transportation, issues its own house bills of lading or equivalent document, but does not operate the vessels by which ocean transportation is provided, and is a shipper in relation to the involved ocean common carrier.

On-Dock Rail
Direct shipside rail service. Includes the ability to load and unload containers/breakbulk directly from rail car to vessel.

Order Notify
Negotiable document between the carrier delivering an item and the shipper of the item because the order does not name the entity. The carrier should notify the person listed on the order that an item is to be delivered.

Origin
Site where the shipment first enters a freight billing system.

Origin Carrier
The origin carrier is the carrier that picks up the freight from the shipper. The origin carrier also receives the bill of lading.

Origin Terminal
The origin terminal is the terminal that picks up the freight from the shipper. The origin terminal also receives the bill of lading.

Out of Gauge (OOG)
Out of specifications, or standard dimensions.

Outbound Logistics
The process related to the movement and storage of products from the end of the production line to the end user.

Overage, Short and Damaged (OS&D)
Over, short and damaged. Report is issued at warehouse when goods are damaged; claim is usually filed with the carrier.

Overcharge/Undercharge
Overcharge or undercharge claims are demands on a transportation company for a refund of an overcharge from the erroneous application of rates, weights and/or assessment of freight charges.

Overcharge Claims
The payor (payer) of the shipping charges files an overcharge claim to dispute a discrepancy in charges that can stem from overpayment, weight or description corrections, etc.

P & D Driver
A P&D driver is the driver that picks up the shipment or delivers to the consignee.

Packing List
A packing list is a detailed list of packed materials.

Pallet / Skid
A small platform, 45×48 inches usually, on which goods are placed for handling within a warehouse or a transportation vehicle such as a ship. Good for grouping break-bulk cargo for handling.

Weight, overhang, pallet configuration and non-standard pallet sizes are a few factors that affect how many pallets can be packed in a trailer. One restriction on how many pallets a trailer-truck can safely carry is the maximum load of the truck. The truck can carry fewer pallets if each pallet is loaded with heavy items. Cargo that overhangs the footprint of the pallet also limits the number of pallets that can be packed in a trailer.

Van 48’ trailer pallet capacity: 24-pallets, 12 per side equal 48’
Van 53’ trailer pallet capacity: 26-pallets, 13 per side equal 52’

Most trailer VANs have a maximum weight load of 48,000lbs. 20,000lbs. per axel or 38,000lbs per twin axel and tandems.

Pallet Deck
A pallet deck is a metal support that enables two pallets of freight to be stacked on top of each other in a trailer. Pallet decks are usually used in line haul movements.

Pre-Arrival Processing System (PAPS)
The mandatory release process for truck importations. This relies on pre-filing the entry information with CBP for them to perform a risk assessment prior to arrival.
PAPS is a U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) border cargo release mechanism that expedites the release of commercial shipments while still processing each shipment through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE), the Automated Commercial Shipment (ACS), and the Automated Targeting System (ATS).

Payee
A party named in an instrument as the beneficiary of the funds. Under letters of credit, the payee is either the drawer of the draft or a bank.

Payer
A party responsible for the payment as evidenced by the given instrument. Under letters of credit, the payer is the party on whom the draft is drawn, usually the drawee bank.

Payment Facility
A payment facility audits and pays freight bills for other companies.
A company that its purpose is to audit and pay freight bills for other companies.

Payment Terms
Generally, the shipper is responsible for payment for prepaid shipments, and the consignee is responsible for payment for collect shipments unless a third party is indicated as pay or on the shipping papers.

Pier
The structure perpendicular to the shoreline to which a vessel is secured for the purpose of loading and unloading cargo.

Perishable Freight
Perishable freight is freight subject to decay or deterioration. PNGLC cannot help you ship perishable freight.

Partners in Protection (PIP)
Partners in Protection (PIP) is a cooperative program between private industry and the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) aimed at enhancing border and trade chain security. It is designed to streamline and make border processes more efficient for low-risk, pre-approved businesses recognized as trusted traders.

Participating Government Agency (PGA)
Any government agencies involved in the import process, such as the Food and Drug Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Department of Transportation.

Pickup and Delivery (P&D)
Local movement of goods between the shipper (or pickup point) and the origin terminal or between the destination terminal and the consignee (or delivery point).

Piggyback
A rail/truck service. A shipper loads a highway trailer, and a carrier drives it to a rail terminal and loads it on a flatcar; the railroad moves the trailer-on-flatcar combination to the destination terminal, where the carrier offloads the trailer and delivers it to the consignee.

Pin lock
A piece of iron that locks in place with a key to prevent an unauthorized person from moving the trailer.

Pinwheeling
A method for loading trailers where you alter the direction of every other pallet. Use pinwheeling in order to load more pallets on a trailer when the depth of the pallet is longer than half the trailer width, but the depth plus the width is less than the trailer width. It is use for productivity / space utilization compromise or to reduce load shifting when loading pallets where the depth of the pallet is less than half the trailer width.

Placard
A label that identifies a hazardous material shipment and the hazards present.

Periodic Monthly Statement (PMS)
A process where an importer/customs broker makes payments of duty on a monthly basis rather than an entry by entry basis.

Point of Origin
The point of origin is the zip code of the shipper’s location.

Pool/Drop Trailers
Trailer that are staged at a facilities for preloading purposes.